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how much is xrd of refractory materials

  • X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) - SERC

    2018-11-16 · The analysis of slag and refractory materials are other examples where additional XRD information is crucial to successful analysis. Slag samples often contain traces of metal. The XRF software either assigns oxTgen or treats a sample as a metal, and consequently mixtures pose problems. In addition, sulphur and silicon are of the few

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  • Combining XRF and XRD analyses and sample

    2017-12-11 · XRD patterns of samples obtained at 1350 °C for different amounts of heating time. Fig. 2. Load–displacement curves of sintered samples: a) WC + 5 wt% W xSi y. b) WC + 10 wt% W xSi y. J. Luković et al. International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials 72 (2018) 9–14 10

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  • International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials

    2013-12-24 · elaboration of mullite refractory materials between 1500˚C and 1600C. An X-ray diffraction ˚ (XRD) analysis showed that the refractory samples are composed of mullite, corundum and silica. The length of the mullite crystals was meas- ured by a method of image analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical and mechanical properties of

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  • Composition and Refractory Properties of Mixtures of ...

    2020-3-5 · Refractory materials are basically inorganic non-metallic substances which are composed of thermally stable mineral aggregates, a binder phase, and additives. Refractory substances are supposed to be able to withstand the varying degrees of severity in terms of exposure to abrasive and corrosive solids, liquids, or gases at extremely high ...

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  • Refractory Material Testing - Lab Testing Services for ...

    2012-3-23 · materials testing and failure analysis. Contact us: (800) 682-2922: Ceramics and Composites: XRD is used on a routine basis to characterize ceramic components. The technique has been used to characterize mullite in refractory bricks, types …

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  • Analytical Lab - Materials Testing Laboratories

    The refractory-metal silicides were isothermally oxidized for 176.4 ksec (49 hrs) at 1773 K in a pure oxygen atmosphere. The results are shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 which represent the time dependence of the weight changes of the silicides and the thicknesses of scales formed on MoSi 2 and WSi 2, respectively.In WSi 2, the oxidation kinetic in the plot of weight change vs. time is not in ...

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  • Refractory Metal - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

    In Italy, 80 000 t/year of spent refractory materials are recycled in the different production sectors that use refractory materials in the plants (Glass, Cement, and Ceramics Factories, non-ferrous Metallurgists, Petrochemical, etc.) The breakdown of re-use of this huge quantity in the various fields of application can be summarised as follows:

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  • Recovery of spent refractories: how to do it and using ...

    Refractory products generally fall into one of two broad categories: preformed shapes or unformed compositions, often called specialty or monolithic refractories. Then, there are refractory ceramic fibers, which resemble residential insulation, but insulate at much higher temperatures.

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  • What Are Refractories - The Refractories Institute (TRI)

    2018-11-20 · Preparation of refractory materials from ferronickel slag by sintering over a broad temperature range (1200°C to 1500°C) with addition of sintered magnesia was explored. The thermodynamic calculations indicated that the amounts of newly generated high-melting-point forsterite and spinel phases increase with increasing temperature. The experimental analysis demonstrated that …

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  • International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials

    X-Ray diffraction is used for the investigation of crystalline materials. All crystalline materials have one thing in common: their components are arranged in a regular manner. Read on to get an introduction to X-ray diffraction and non-ambient X-ray diffraction

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  • Int. Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials

    2017-12-11 · XRD patterns of samples obtained at 1350 °C for different amounts of heating time. Fig. 2. Load–displacement curves of sintered samples: a) WC + 5 wt% W xSi y. b) WC + 10 wt% W xSi y. J. Luković et al. International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials 72 (2018) 9–14 10

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  • Combining XRF and XRD analyses and sample

    2017-6-1 · ray diffraction (XRD) (Cu Kα: 40 kV, 200 mA) were used to investigate the chemical compositions of the worn PCD surfaces. The compositions and structures of the materials on the worn surfaces of PCD discs were detected by the LabRAM HR Evolution Raman spectrometer with 514.5 nm wavelength of Ar+ laser. 2.37 mm WC/Co substrate 0.54 mm PCD layer ...

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  • Int. Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials

    2018-11-16 · The analysis of slag and refractory materials are other examples where additional XRD information is crucial to successful analysis. Slag samples often contain traces of metal. The XRF software either assigns oxTgen or treats a sample as a metal, and consequently mixtures pose problems. In addition, sulphur and silicon are of the few

    Get Price
  • Combining XRF and XRD analyses and sample

    2021-1-22 · XRD pattern for the production of WC from interrupted high energy ball milling of W and C, corresponding to (a) initial mixture, (b) 4 h, (c) 8 h and (d) 12 h of milling, at BPR of 10:1 and milling speed of 300 rpm, respectively. Fig. 1. W–C phase diagram [5]. 2 S. Bolokang et al./Int. Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials xxx (2009 ...

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  • Int. Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials

    Characterization of ceramic oxide refractories by XRF and XRD. Download. Characterization of ceramic oxide refractories by XRF and XRD. J. Jarque. Alfonso Barba. ... RAW MATERIALS, PROCESSING, PROPERTIES, DEGRADATION AND HEALING Edited by Costas Sikalidis ... MgAl 2 O 4 spinel as an effective ceramic bonding in a MgO–CaZrO 3 refractory.

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  • Recovery of spent refractories: how to do it and using ...

    The analysis of slag and refractory materials are other examples where additional XRD information is crucial to successful analysis. Slag samples often contain traces of metal. The XRF software either assigns oxygen or treats a sample as a metal, and consequently mixtures pose problems. In addition, sulphur and silicon are of the few

    Get Price
  • Int. Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials

    2021-1-22 · XRD pattern for the production of WC from interrupted high energy ball milling of W and C, corresponding to (a) initial mixture, (b) 4 h, (c) 8 h and (d) 12 h of milling, at BPR of 10:1 and milling speed of 300 rpm, respectively. Fig. 1. W–C phase diagram [5]. 2 S. Bolokang et al./Int. Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials xxx (2009 ...

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  • Refractory Materials for Casting Manganese Alloyed TRIP

    1251 °C and therefore much lower than the melting point of the steel, i.e. approximately 1430 °C. C2, the second crucible material investigat-ed, was based on an Al 2O 3 matrix with silica bonding. The refractory contained 9 mass-% of SiO 2, which was much lower than in …

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  • Low Cement High Alumina Castables: Effect of

    2013-12-13 · Refractory materials used in various areas of the iron and steel industry need to face severe challenges to meet critical operational parameters at high temperatures. Hence, the attention of refractory manufacturers has shifted towards unshaped refractories to substitute for conventional and shaped ones.

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  • Effects of Alumina Cement on the Refractory Properties of ...

    2013-8-11 · raw materials. Rather a wide range of compositions is encountered, depending on the application and the purity of aluminium source used [9]. Refractory materials are heat-resistant compounds that can withstand the corrosive and abrasive effects of liquids and gases without contaminating other materials. Refractory

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  • (PDF) The pO-Index and R Ratio Gap Methods for the ...

    The EDS analysis (X_EDS termine the corrosion probability of refractory materials, in INCA, Oxford Inst., Hillsboro, OR) evaluated the average contact with melts, is the ratio R of the charges represented by chemical composition of the glassy phase found in the as- the network-dwelling cation to the number of A131 ions:14 received refractory ...

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  • STUDIES ON PHASE FORMATION IN HIGH ALUMINA

    2013-12-10 · CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the thesis entitled, “STUDIES ON PHASE FORMATION IN HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT BY VARYING MANUFACTURING PARAMETER AND EFFECT OF THOSE PHASES IN REFRACTORY CASTABLE” submitted by Mr. Aditya Prakash Shrimali in partial fulfillments of the requirements for the award of Master of Technology degree in Ceramic …

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  • Senary Refractory High-Entropy Alloy HfNbTaTiVZr ...

    2015-9-3 · A new senary refractory BCC HfNbTaTiVZr HEA was designed by CALPHAD modeling using TCNI7 database and was experimentally verified using XRD and SEM. The atomic structure and diffusion constants were predicted using AIMD simulations. The measured density at room temperature is 9.36 g/cm 3. The Vickers micro-hardness of the alloy is about 5.5 GPa.

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  • Geopolymers with the Potential for Use as Refractory

    2006-1-9 · A geopolymer was prepared by dissolving metakaolinite in a solution of K2SiO3 and KOH and curing at 80C for 24 h. The open porosity of the material was ~38% at 1000C, which is sufficiently porous for it to be used as a heat insulation material for continuous use at this temperature.

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  • Thin films of hard cubic Zr 3 N 4 ... - Nature Materials

    2005-3-13 · Therefore, harder materials can withstand much higher compressive stresses due to the superior shear strength. This is the case in Fig. 3b where the harder c-Zr 3 …

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  • Processing and Properties of High-Entropy Ultra-High ...

    2018-6-5 · Closer inspection of the first two XRD peaks in both materials (Fig. 2) also reveals more of the detail in the asymmetry of the peaks, which are skewed towards lower 2θ° values.This is related ...

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  • Int. Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials

    2017-6-1 · ray diffraction (XRD) (Cu Kα: 40 kV, 200 mA) were used to investigate the chemical compositions of the worn PCD surfaces. The compositions and structures of the materials on the worn surfaces of PCD discs were detected by the LabRAM HR Evolution Raman spectrometer with 514.5 nm wavelength of Ar+ laser. 2.37 mm WC/Co substrate 0.54 mm PCD layer ...

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  • Dissolution Behavior of Mg and Ca from Dolomite

    The structure of the refractory material was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). As shown in Fig. 1. The main crystalline peaks were confirmed to be CaO and MgO; a few peaks representing MgCO 3, CaCO 3, and Ca(OH) 2 were also found. Although the refractory rods were kept in a dry

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  • Combining XRF and XRD analyses and sample

    The analysis of slag and refractory materials are other examples where additional XRD information is crucial to successful analysis. Slag samples often contain traces of metal. The XRF software either assigns oxygen or treats a sample as a metal, and consequently mixtures pose problems. In addition, sulphur and silicon are of the few

    Get Price
  • Evaluation of Non Crystalline Phase in AZS

    The glass proportion will define much of their properties and behaviors.In the present work the results of the non crystalline phase quantification of two samples of commercial AZS materials are presented and compared. These were obtained by three different methods using in the X ray powder diffraction (XRD…

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  • Refractory Materials for Casting Manganese Alloyed TRIP

    1251 °C and therefore much lower than the melting point of the steel, i.e. approximately 1430 °C. C2, the second crucible material investigat-ed, was based on an Al 2O 3 matrix with silica bonding. The refractory contained 9 mass-% of SiO 2, which was much lower than in …

    Get Price
  • IMI | Materials | Metal Nitrides

    Refractory metal nitride films are widely used in applications requiring materials with good conductivity and resistant to high temperatures and oxidizing ambients. These films are used for electrodes in devices such as capacitors and transistors, and as an adhesion …

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  • Research and Development of Novel Refractory of

    2021-4-28 · The copper industry is a great consumer of refractory materials since more than 25,000 t of refractory materials are used in its primary production (copper smelting, converting, and refining furnaces). It has been estimated in 35 Mt of copper worldwide produced every year: 60% by pyrometallurgical processes and 40% from copper scrap .

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  • Development of Precipitation-Strengthened

    2021-4-1 · However, this value is much lower than conventional high-temperature materials, such as Inconel 718 (8.22 g cm −3) and RHEAs. Most reported RHEAs possess high density of 6–13 g cm −3, i.e., NbTiVZr and CrNbTiVZr alloys are 6.52 and 6.57 g cm −3 , respectively.

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  • Sinterability of macrocrystalline and cryptocrystalline ...

    2020-9-5 · 1 INTRODUCTION. There are two major sources to produce sintered refractory magnesia over the world. One is to concentrate Mg 2+ from seawater or natural brine and to obtain the sintered dense magnesia at normal temperature of 1600-1700°C after calcining the precipitated magnesium hydroxide. 1 The other is to calcine natural magnesite (MgCO 3) and to sinter the compacts of caustic …

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  • Cement hydration

    Hydration products. The products of the reaction between cement and water are termed 'hydration products.' In concrete (or mortar or other cementitious materials) there are typically four main types: Calcium silicate hydrate: this is the main reaction product and is the main source of concrete strength. It is often abbreviated, using cement chemists' notation, to 'C-S-H,' the dashes indicating ...

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  • Int. Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials

    2017-1-5 · The powders were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) using a PANalytical X'Pert PRO powder diffractometer (CuKα radiation, X'Celerator detector, Ni Kβ filter). Before analysis, the powders Int. Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials 62 (2017) 97–103 ⁎ Corresponding author. E-mail address: [email protected] (J. Weidow).

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  • Study of aluminium oxide from high-alumina refractory ...

    2019-4-9 · XRD using the powder method in a Siemens D-5000 automated diffractometer with CuKα radiation. The XRD measurements were performed by step scanning from 2° Figure 1. Slice of one of the twenty analysed refractory bricks cut using a water-lubricated diamond blade. to 64° 2θ in steps of 0⋅020°, and a counting time of 6 s per step.

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  • Investigation of Corrosion Mechanisms between Copper

    In this article the different interactions between molten copper and lead and various refractory materials are investigated by crucible tests. The refractory bricks were chrome­corundum resp. chrome­zirconia­ ... but not with coarse refractory components (Fig. 8). XRD shows the formation of mostly CuAlO 2 beside a high portion of alumina ...

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  • XRD software HighScore Plus version 4.9 | Malvern

    2020-7-28 · - Webinar 2: Studying battery cathode materials using X-ray diffraction More info - Webinar 3: Expand your powder XRD applications for materials characterization research More info - Webinar 4: Good vs bad XRD patterns: how to improve your phase analysis. More info - Webinar 5: Better XRD data quality: importance of good sample preparation.

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  • A Novel Series of Refractory High-Entropy Alloys

    2021-3-23 · A series of Ti 2 ZrHf 0.5 VNb x (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0) refractory high-entropy alloys were prepared to investigate the alloying effect of Nb on the microstructures and mechanical properties. All the alloys displayed a simple BCC structure. The microstructures of the alloys changed from the initial single-phase columnar structure (x = 0) to dendrite microstructure (x > 0).

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  • Recent advances in silica-alumina refractory: A review

    2019-3-20 · materials are supposed to be resistant to heat and are to different degrees of mechanical stress and strain, cor-from liquids andgases, mechanical abrasion at high temperature [1–8]. Different types of refractory materials can be synthesized according to the nature of the raw materials …

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  • Microwave Sintering of Refractory Metals/alloys: W, Mo,

    2017-5-16 · Microwave Sintering of Refractory Metals/alloys: W, Mo, Re, W-Cu, W-Ni-Cu and W-Ni-Fe Alloys Avijit Mondal1, Dinesh Agrawal 2, Anish Upadhyaya 1 1 Department of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, INDIA

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  • Solution Combustion Synthesis and Sintering Behavior of ...

    2010-10-7 · Fig. 1 XRD patterns of the combustion synthesized powders. (a) The product A from a fuel mixture with the urea/glycine molar ratio of 9/2, (b): The product B from urea. Fig. 2 displays the FESEM micrographs of the two powders. As shown in Fig. 3(a1) and Fig. 3(b1), the powders B exhibited much denser agglomeration, while the powders A

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  • HYDRATION OF CALCIUM ALUMINATE CEMENT PHASES

    2020-10-9 · HYDRATION OF CALCIUM ALUMINATE CEMENT PHASES CA AND CA 2 IN REFRACTORY APPLICATIONS Sebastian Klaus 1, Andreas Buhr , Dagmar Schmidtmeier 2, Stefan Kuiper 3, Friedlinde Goetz-Neunhoeffer4 1Almatis GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany, 2Almatis GmbH, Ludwigshafen, Germany, 3Almatis BV, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 4University of Erlangen …

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